Microcontrollers are small, integrated circuits that serve as the brain of many electronic devices. They are designed to perform specific tasks and are commonly used in embedded systems, such as home appliances, automotive systems, and industrial machinery. Microcontrollers consist of a processor core, memory, and input/output peripherals. They are programmed to execute tasks and control the operation of various hardware components. Microcontrollers play a crucial role in the development of electronic devices, as they provide the necessary intelligence and control for efficient and reliable operation.